Source code for flask_sqlalchemy

# -*- coding: utf-8 -*-

    Adds basic SQLAlchemy support to your application.

    :copyright: (c) 2014 by Armin Ronacher, Daniel Neuhäuser.
    :license: BSD, see LICENSE for more details.
from __future__ import with_statement, absolute_import
import os
import re
import sys
import time
import functools
import sqlalchemy
from math import ceil
from functools import partial
from flask import _request_ctx_stack, abort
from flask.signals import Namespace
from operator import itemgetter
from threading import Lock
from sqlalchemy import orm, event
from sqlalchemy.orm.exc import UnmappedClassError
from sqlalchemy.orm.session import Session as SessionBase
from sqlalchemy.event import listen
from sqlalchemy.engine.url import make_url
from sqlalchemy.ext.declarative import declarative_base, DeclarativeMeta
from flask.ext.sqlalchemy._compat import iteritems, itervalues, xrange, \

# the best timer function for the platform
if sys.platform == 'win32':
    _timer = time.clock
    _timer = time.time

    from flask import _app_ctx_stack
except ImportError:
    _app_ctx_stack = None

__version__ = '2.0'

# Which stack should we use?  _app_ctx_stack is new in 0.9
connection_stack = _app_ctx_stack or _request_ctx_stack

_camelcase_re = re.compile(r'([A-Z]+)(?=[a-z0-9])')
_signals = Namespace()

models_committed = _signals.signal('models-committed')
before_models_committed = _signals.signal('before-models-committed')

def _make_table(db):
    def _make_table(*args, **kwargs):
        if len(args) > 1 and isinstance(args[1], db.Column):
            args = (args[0], db.metadata) + args[1:]
        info = kwargs.pop('info', None) or {}
        info.setdefault('bind_key', None)
        kwargs['info'] = info
        return sqlalchemy.Table(*args, **kwargs)
    return _make_table

def _set_default_query_class(d):
    if 'query_class' not in d:
        d['query_class'] = BaseQuery

def _wrap_with_default_query_class(fn):
    def newfn(*args, **kwargs):
        if "backref" in kwargs:
            backref = kwargs['backref']
            if isinstance(backref, string_types):
                backref = (backref, {})
        return fn(*args, **kwargs)
    return newfn

def _include_sqlalchemy(obj):
    for module in sqlalchemy, sqlalchemy.orm:
        for key in module.__all__:
            if not hasattr(obj, key):
                setattr(obj, key, getattr(module, key))
    # Note: obj.Table does not attempt to be a SQLAlchemy Table class.
    obj.Table = _make_table(obj)
    obj.relationship = _wrap_with_default_query_class(obj.relationship)
    obj.relation = _wrap_with_default_query_class(obj.relation)
    obj.dynamic_loader = _wrap_with_default_query_class(obj.dynamic_loader)
    obj.event = event

class _DebugQueryTuple(tuple):
    statement = property(itemgetter(0))
    parameters = property(itemgetter(1))
    start_time = property(itemgetter(2))
    end_time = property(itemgetter(3))
    context = property(itemgetter(4))

    def duration(self):
        return self.end_time - self.start_time

    def __repr__(self):
        return '<query statement="%s" parameters=%r duration=%.03f>' % (

def _calling_context(app_path):
    frm = sys._getframe(1)
    while frm.f_back is not None:
        name = frm.f_globals.get('__name__')
        if name and (name == app_path or name.startswith(app_path + '.')):
            funcname = frm.f_code.co_name
            return '%s:%s (%s)' % (
        frm = frm.f_back
    return '<unknown>'

class SignallingSession(SessionBase):
    """The signalling session is the default session that Flask-SQLAlchemy
    uses.  It extends the default session system with bind selection and
    modification tracking.

    If you want to use a different session you can override the
    :meth:`SQLAlchemy.create_session` function.

    .. versionadded:: 2.0

    def __init__(self, db, autocommit=False, autoflush=True, **options):
        #: The application that this session belongs to. = db.get_app()
        self._model_changes = {}
        #: A flag that controls whether this session should keep track of
        #: model modifications.  The default value for this attribute
        #: is set from the ``SQLALCHEMY_TRACK_MODIFICATIONS`` config
        #: key.
        self.emit_modification_signals = \
        bind = options.pop('bind', None) or db.engine
        SessionBase.__init__(self, autocommit=autocommit, autoflush=autoflush,
                             binds=db.get_binds(, **options)

    def get_bind(self, mapper, clause=None):
        # mapper is None if someone tries to just get a connection
        if mapper is not None:
            info = getattr(mapper.mapped_table, 'info', {})
            bind_key = info.get('bind_key')
            if bind_key is not None:
                state = get_state(
                return state.db.get_engine(, bind=bind_key)
        return SessionBase.get_bind(self, mapper, clause)

class _SessionSignalEvents(object):

    def register(self):
        listen(SessionBase, 'before_commit', self.session_signal_before_commit)
        listen(SessionBase, 'after_commit', self.session_signal_after_commit)
        listen(SessionBase, 'after_rollback', self.session_signal_after_rollback)

    def session_signal_before_commit(session):
        if not isinstance(session, SignallingSession):
        d = session._model_changes
        if d:
            before_models_committed.send(, changes=d.values())

    def session_signal_after_commit(session):
        if not isinstance(session, SignallingSession):
        d = session._model_changes
        if d:
            models_committed.send(, changes=list(d.values()))

    def session_signal_after_rollback(session):
        if not isinstance(session, SignallingSession):

class _MapperSignalEvents(object):

    def __init__(self, mapper):
        self.mapper = mapper

    def register(self):
        listen(self.mapper, 'after_delete', self.mapper_signal_after_delete)
        listen(self.mapper, 'after_insert', self.mapper_signal_after_insert)
        listen(self.mapper, 'after_update', self.mapper_signal_after_update)

    def mapper_signal_after_delete(self, mapper, connection, target):
        self._record(mapper, target, 'delete')

    def mapper_signal_after_insert(self, mapper, connection, target):
        self._record(mapper, target, 'insert')

    def mapper_signal_after_update(self, mapper, connection, target):
        self._record(mapper, target, 'update')

    def _record(mapper, target, operation):
        s = orm.object_session(target)
        if isinstance(s, SignallingSession) and s.emit_modification_signals:
            pk = tuple(mapper.primary_key_from_instance(target))
            s._model_changes[pk] = (target, operation)

class _EngineDebuggingSignalEvents(object):
    """Sets up handlers for two events that let us track the execution time of queries."""

    def __init__(self, engine, import_name):
        self.engine = engine
        self.app_package = import_name

    def register(self):
        listen(self.engine, 'before_cursor_execute', self.before_cursor_execute)
        listen(self.engine, 'after_cursor_execute', self.after_cursor_execute)

    def before_cursor_execute(self, conn, cursor, statement,
                              parameters, context, executemany):
        if is not None:
            context._query_start_time = _timer()

    def after_cursor_execute(self, conn, cursor, statement,
                             parameters, context, executemany):
        ctx =
        if ctx is not None:
            queries = getattr(ctx, 'sqlalchemy_queries', None)
            if queries is None:
                queries = []
                setattr(ctx, 'sqlalchemy_queries', queries)
                statement, parameters, context._query_start_time, _timer(),

def get_debug_queries():
    """In debug mode Flask-SQLAlchemy will log all the SQL queries sent
    to the database.  This information is available until the end of request
    which makes it possible to easily ensure that the SQL generated is the
    one expected on errors or in unittesting.  If you don't want to enable
    the DEBUG mode for your unittests you can also enable the query
    recording by setting the ``'SQLALCHEMY_RECORD_QUERIES'`` config variable
    to `True`.  This is automatically enabled if Flask is in testing mode.

    The value returned will be a list of named tuples with the following

        The SQL statement issued

        The parameters for the SQL statement

    `start_time` / `end_time`
        Time the query started / the results arrived.  Please keep in mind
        that the timer function used depends on your platform. These
        values are only useful for sorting or comparing.  They do not
        necessarily represent an absolute timestamp.

        Time the query took in seconds

        A string giving a rough estimation of where in your application
        query was issued.  The exact format is undefined so don't try
        to reconstruct filename or function name.
    return getattr(, 'sqlalchemy_queries', [])

class Pagination(object):
    """Internal helper class returned by :meth:`BaseQuery.paginate`.  You
    can also construct it from any other SQLAlchemy query object if you are
    working with other libraries.  Additionally it is possible to pass `None`
    as query object in which case the :meth:`prev` and :meth:`next` will
    no longer work.

    def __init__(self, query, page, per_page, total, items):
        #: the unlimited query object that was used to create this
        #: pagination object.
        self.query = query
        #: the current page number (1 indexed) = page
        #: the number of items to be displayed on a page.
        self.per_page = per_page
        #: the total number of items matching the query = total
        #: the items for the current page
        self.items = items

    def pages(self):
        """The total number of pages"""
        if self.per_page == 0:
            pages = 0
            pages = int(ceil( / float(self.per_page)))
        return pages

    def prev(self, error_out=False):
        """Returns a :class:`Pagination` object for the previous page."""
        assert self.query is not None, 'a query object is required ' \
                                       'for this method to work'
        return self.query.paginate( - 1, self.per_page, error_out)

    def prev_num(self):
        """Number of the previous page."""
        return - 1

    def has_prev(self):
        """True if a previous page exists"""
        return > 1

    def next(self, error_out=False):
        """Returns a :class:`Pagination` object for the next page."""
        assert self.query is not None, 'a query object is required ' \
                                       'for this method to work'
        return self.query.paginate( + 1, self.per_page, error_out)

    def has_next(self):
        """True if a next page exists."""
        return < self.pages

    def next_num(self):
        """Number of the next page"""
        return + 1

    def iter_pages(self, left_edge=2, left_current=2,
                   right_current=5, right_edge=2):
        """Iterates over the page numbers in the pagination.  The four
        parameters control the thresholds how many numbers should be produced
        from the sides.  Skipped page numbers are represented as `None`.
        This is how you could render such a pagination in the templates:

        .. sourcecode:: html+jinja

            {% macro render_pagination(pagination, endpoint) %}
              <div class=pagination>
              {%- for page in pagination.iter_pages() %}
                {% if page %}
                  {% if page != %}
                    <a href="{{ url_for(endpoint, page=page) }}">{{ page }}</a>
                  {% else %}
                    <strong>{{ page }}</strong>
                  {% endif %}
                {% else %}
                  <span class=ellipsis>…</span>
                {% endif %}
              {%- endfor %}
            {% endmacro %}
        last = 0
        for num in xrange(1, self.pages + 1):
            if num <= left_edge or \
               (num > - left_current - 1 and \
                num < + right_current) or \
               num > self.pages - right_edge:
                if last + 1 != num:
                    yield None
                yield num
                last = num

class BaseQuery(orm.Query):
    """The default query object used for models, and exposed as
    :attr:`~SQLAlchemy.Query`. This can be subclassed and
    replaced for individual models by setting the :attr:`~Model.query_class`
    attribute.  This is a subclass of a standard SQLAlchemy
    :class:`~sqlalchemy.orm.query.Query` class and has all the methods of a
    standard query as well.

    def get_or_404(self, ident):
        """Like :meth:`get` but aborts with 404 if not found instead of
        returning `None`.
        rv = self.get(ident)
        if rv is None:
        return rv

    def first_or_404(self):
        """Like :meth:`first` but aborts with 404 if not found instead of
        returning `None`.
        rv = self.first()
        if rv is None:
        return rv

    def paginate(self, page, per_page=20, error_out=True):
        """Returns `per_page` items from page `page`.  By default it will
        abort with 404 if no items were found and the page was larger than
        1.  This behavor can be disabled by setting `error_out` to `False`.

        Returns an :class:`Pagination` object.
        if error_out and page < 1:
        items = self.limit(per_page).offset((page - 1) * per_page).all()
        if not items and page != 1 and error_out:

        # No need to count if we're on the first page and there are fewer
        # items than we expected.
        if page == 1 and len(items) < per_page:
            total = len(items)
            total = self.order_by(None).count()

        return Pagination(self, page, per_page, total, items)

class _QueryProperty(object):

    def __init__(self, sa): = sa

    def __get__(self, obj, type):
            mapper = orm.class_mapper(type)
            if mapper:
                return type.query_class(mapper,
        except UnmappedClassError:
            return None

def _record_queries(app):
    if app.debug:
        return True
    rq = app.config['SQLALCHEMY_RECORD_QUERIES']
    if rq is not None:
        return rq
    return bool(app.config.get('TESTING'))

class _EngineConnector(object):

    def __init__(self, sa, app, bind=None):
        self._sa = sa
        self._app = app
        self._engine = None
        self._connected_for = None
        self._bind = bind
        self._lock = Lock()

    def get_uri(self):
        if self._bind is None:
            return self._app.config['SQLALCHEMY_DATABASE_URI']
        binds = self._app.config.get('SQLALCHEMY_BINDS') or ()
        assert self._bind in binds, \
            'Bind %r is not specified.  Set it in the SQLALCHEMY_BINDS ' \
            'configuration variable' % self._bind
        return binds[self._bind]

    def get_engine(self):
        with self._lock:
            uri = self.get_uri()
            echo = self._app.config['SQLALCHEMY_ECHO']
            if (uri, echo) == self._connected_for:
                return self._engine
            info = make_url(uri)
            options = {'convert_unicode': True}
            self._sa.apply_pool_defaults(self._app, options)
            self._sa.apply_driver_hacks(self._app, info, options)
            if echo:
                options['echo'] = True
            self._engine = rv = sqlalchemy.create_engine(info, **options)
            if _record_queries(self._app):
            self._connected_for = (uri, echo)
            return rv

def _defines_primary_key(d):
    """Figures out if the given dictionary defines a primary key column."""
    return any(v.primary_key for k, v in iteritems(d)
               if isinstance(v, sqlalchemy.Column))

class _BoundDeclarativeMeta(DeclarativeMeta):

    def __new__(cls, name, bases, d):
        tablename = d.get('__tablename__')

        # generate a table name automatically if it's missing and the
        # class dictionary declares a primary key.  We cannot always
        # attach a primary key to support model inheritance that does
        # not use joins.  We also don't want a table name if a whole
        # table is defined
        if not tablename and d.get('__table__') is None and \
            def _join(match):
                word =
                if len(word) > 1:
                    return ('_%s_%s' % (word[:-1], word[-1])).lower()
                return '_' + word.lower()
            d['__tablename__'] = _camelcase_re.sub(_join, name).lstrip('_')

        return DeclarativeMeta.__new__(cls, name, bases, d)

    def __init__(self, name, bases, d):
        bind_key = d.pop('__bind_key__', None)
        DeclarativeMeta.__init__(self, name, bases, d)
        if bind_key is not None:
  ['bind_key'] = bind_key

def get_state(app):
    """Gets the state for the application"""
    assert 'sqlalchemy' in app.extensions, \
        'The sqlalchemy extension was not registered to the current ' \
        'application.  Please make sure to call init_app() first.'
    return app.extensions['sqlalchemy']

class _SQLAlchemyState(object):
    """Remembers configuration for the (db, app) tuple."""

    def __init__(self, db, app):
        self.db = db = app
        self.connectors = {}

[docs]class Model(object): """Baseclass for custom user models.""" #: the query class used. The :attr:`query` attribute is an instance #: of this class. By default a :class:`BaseQuery` is used. query_class = BaseQuery #: an instance of :attr:`query_class`. Can be used to query the #: database for instances of this model. query = None
class SQLAlchemy(object): """This class is used to control the SQLAlchemy integration to one or more Flask applications. Depending on how you initialize the object it is usable right away or will attach as needed to a Flask application. There are two usage modes which work very similar. One is binding the instance to a very specific Flask application:: app = Flask(__name__) db = SQLAlchemy(app) The second possibility is to create the object once and configure the application later to support it:: db = SQLAlchemy() def create_app(): app = Flask(__name__) db.init_app(app) return app The difference between the two is that in the first case methods like :meth:`create_all` and :meth:`drop_all` will work all the time but in the second case a :meth:`flask.Flask.app_context` has to exist. By default Flask-SQLAlchemy will apply some backend-specific settings to improve your experience with them. As of SQLAlchemy 0.6 SQLAlchemy will probe the library for native unicode support. If it detects unicode it will let the library handle that, otherwise do that itself. Sometimes this detection can fail in which case you might want to set `use_native_unicode` (or the ``SQLALCHEMY_NATIVE_UNICODE`` configuration key) to `False`. Note that the configuration key overrides the value you pass to the constructor. This class also provides access to all the SQLAlchemy functions and classes from the :mod:`sqlalchemy` and :mod:`sqlalchemy.orm` modules. So you can declare models like this:: class User(db.Model): username = db.Column(db.String(80), unique=True) pw_hash = db.Column(db.String(80)) You can still use :mod:`sqlalchemy` and :mod:`sqlalchemy.orm` directly, but note that Flask-SQLAlchemy customizations are available only through an instance of this :class:`SQLAlchemy` class. Query classes default to :class:`BaseQuery` for `db.Query`, `db.Model.query_class`, and the default query_class for `db.relationship` and `db.backref`. If you use these interfaces through :mod:`sqlalchemy` and :mod:`sqlalchemy.orm` directly, the default query class will be that of :mod:`sqlalchemy`. .. admonition:: Check types carefully Don't perform type or `isinstance` checks against `db.Table`, which emulates `Table` behavior but is not a class. `db.Table` exposes the `Table` interface, but is a function which allows omission of metadata. You may also define your own SessionExtension instances as well when defining your SQLAlchemy class instance. You may pass your custom instances to the `session_extensions` keyword. This can be either a single SessionExtension instance, or a list of SessionExtension instances. In the following use case we use the VersionedListener from the SQLAlchemy versioning examples.:: from history_meta import VersionedMeta, VersionedListener app = Flask(__name__) db = SQLAlchemy(app, session_extensions=[VersionedListener()]) class User(db.Model): __metaclass__ = VersionedMeta username = db.Column(db.String(80), unique=True) pw_hash = db.Column(db.String(80)) The `session_options` parameter can be used to override session options. If provided it's a dict of parameters passed to the session's constructor. .. versionadded:: 0.10 The `session_options` parameter was added. .. versionadded:: 0.16 `scopefunc` is now accepted on `session_options`. It allows specifying a custom function which will define the SQLAlchemy session's scoping. """ def __init__(self, app=None, use_native_unicode=True, session_options=None): self.use_native_unicode = use_native_unicode if session_options is None: session_options = {} session_options.setdefault( 'scopefunc', connection_stack.__ident_func__ ) self.session = self.create_scoped_session(session_options) self.Model = self.make_declarative_base() self._engine_lock = Lock() if app is not None: = app self.init_app(app) else: = None _include_sqlalchemy(self) _MapperSignalEvents(self.mapper).register() _SessionSignalEvents().register() self.Query = BaseQuery @property def metadata(self): """Returns the metadata""" return self.Model.metadata def create_scoped_session(self, options=None): """Helper factory method that creates a scoped session. It internally calls :meth:`create_session`. """ if options is None: options = {} scopefunc = options.pop('scopefunc', None) return orm.scoped_session(partial(self.create_session, options), scopefunc=scopefunc) def create_session(self, options): """Creates the session. The default implementation returns a :class:`SignallingSession`. .. versionadded:: 2.0 """ return SignallingSession(self, **options) def make_declarative_base(self): """Creates the declarative base.""" base = declarative_base(cls=Model, name='Model', metaclass=_BoundDeclarativeMeta) base.query = _QueryProperty(self) return base def init_app(self, app): """This callback can be used to initialize an application for the use with this database setup. Never use a database in the context of an application not initialized that way or connections will leak. """ app.config.setdefault('SQLALCHEMY_DATABASE_URI', 'sqlite://') app.config.setdefault('SQLALCHEMY_BINDS', None) app.config.setdefault('SQLALCHEMY_NATIVE_UNICODE', None) app.config.setdefault('SQLALCHEMY_ECHO', False) app.config.setdefault('SQLALCHEMY_RECORD_QUERIES', None) app.config.setdefault('SQLALCHEMY_POOL_SIZE', None) app.config.setdefault('SQLALCHEMY_POOL_TIMEOUT', None) app.config.setdefault('SQLALCHEMY_POOL_RECYCLE', None) app.config.setdefault('SQLALCHEMY_MAX_OVERFLOW', None) app.config.setdefault('SQLALCHEMY_COMMIT_ON_TEARDOWN', False) app.config.setdefault('SQLALCHEMY_TRACK_MODIFICATIONS', True) if not hasattr(app, 'extensions'): app.extensions = {} app.extensions['sqlalchemy'] = _SQLAlchemyState(self, app) # 0.9 and later if hasattr(app, 'teardown_appcontext'): teardown = app.teardown_appcontext # 0.7 to 0.8 elif hasattr(app, 'teardown_request'): teardown = app.teardown_request # Older Flask versions else: if app.config['SQLALCHEMY_COMMIT_ON_TEARDOWN']: raise RuntimeError("Commit on teardown requires Flask >= 0.7") teardown = app.after_request @teardown def shutdown_session(response_or_exc): if app.config['SQLALCHEMY_COMMIT_ON_TEARDOWN']: if response_or_exc is None: self.session.commit() self.session.remove() return response_or_exc def apply_pool_defaults(self, app, options): def _setdefault(optionkey, configkey): value = app.config[configkey] if value is not None: options[optionkey] = value _setdefault('pool_size', 'SQLALCHEMY_POOL_SIZE') _setdefault('pool_timeout', 'SQLALCHEMY_POOL_TIMEOUT') _setdefault('pool_recycle', 'SQLALCHEMY_POOL_RECYCLE') _setdefault('max_overflow', 'SQLALCHEMY_MAX_OVERFLOW') def apply_driver_hacks(self, app, info, options): """This method is called before engine creation and used to inject driver specific hacks into the options. The `options` parameter is a dictionary of keyword arguments that will then be used to call the :func:`sqlalchemy.create_engine` function. The default implementation provides some saner defaults for things like pool sizes for MySQL and sqlite. Also it injects the setting of `SQLALCHEMY_NATIVE_UNICODE`. """ if info.drivername.startswith('mysql'): info.query.setdefault('charset', 'utf8') if info.drivername != 'mysql+gaerdbms': options.setdefault('pool_size', 10) options.setdefault('pool_recycle', 7200) elif info.drivername == 'sqlite': pool_size = options.get('pool_size') detected_in_memory = False # we go to memory and the pool size was explicitly set to 0 # which is fail. Let the user know that if info.database in (None, '', ':memory:'): detected_in_memory = True if pool_size == 0: raise RuntimeError('SQLite in memory database with an ' 'empty queue not possible due to data ' 'loss.') # if pool size is None or explicitly set to 0 we assume the # user did not want a queue for this sqlite connection and # hook in the null pool. elif not pool_size: from sqlalchemy.pool import NullPool options['poolclass'] = NullPool # if it's not an in memory database we make the path absolute. if not detected_in_memory: info.database = os.path.join(app.root_path, info.database) unu = app.config['SQLALCHEMY_NATIVE_UNICODE'] if unu is None: unu = self.use_native_unicode if not unu: options['use_native_unicode'] = False @property def engine(self): """Gives access to the engine. If the database configuration is bound to a specific application (initialized with an application) this will always return a database connection. If however the current application is used this might raise a :exc:`RuntimeError` if no application is active at the moment. """ return self.get_engine(self.get_app()) def make_connector(self, app, bind=None): """Creates the connector for a given state and bind.""" return _EngineConnector(self, app, bind) def get_engine(self, app, bind=None): """Returns a specific engine. .. versionadded:: 0.12 """ with self._engine_lock: state = get_state(app) connector = state.connectors.get(bind) if connector is None: connector = self.make_connector(app, bind) state.connectors[bind] = connector return connector.get_engine() def get_app(self, reference_app=None): """Helper method that implements the logic to look up an application. """ if reference_app is not None: return reference_app if is not None: return ctx = if ctx is not None: return raise RuntimeError('application not registered on db ' 'instance and no application bound ' 'to current context') def get_tables_for_bind(self, bind=None): """Returns a list of all tables relevant for a bind.""" result = [] for table in itervalues(self.Model.metadata.tables): if'bind_key') == bind: result.append(table) return result def get_binds(self, app=None): """Returns a dictionary with a table->engine mapping. This is suitable for use of sessionmaker(binds=db.get_binds(app)). """ app = self.get_app(app) binds = [None] + list(app.config.get('SQLALCHEMY_BINDS') or ()) retval = {} for bind in binds: engine = self.get_engine(app, bind) tables = self.get_tables_for_bind(bind) retval.update(dict((table, engine) for table in tables)) return retval def _execute_for_all_tables(self, app, bind, operation, skip_tables=False): app = self.get_app(app) if bind == '__all__': binds = [None] + list(app.config.get('SQLALCHEMY_BINDS') or ()) elif isinstance(bind, string_types) or bind is None: binds = [bind] else: binds = bind for bind in binds: extra = {} if not skip_tables: tables = self.get_tables_for_bind(bind) extra['tables'] = tables op = getattr(self.Model.metadata, operation) op(bind=self.get_engine(app, bind), **extra) def create_all(self, bind='__all__', app=None): """Creates all tables. .. versionchanged:: 0.12 Parameters were added """ self._execute_for_all_tables(app, bind, 'create_all') def drop_all(self, bind='__all__', app=None): """Drops all tables. .. versionchanged:: 0.12 Parameters were added """ self._execute_for_all_tables(app, bind, 'drop_all') def reflect(self, bind='__all__', app=None): """Reflects tables from the database. .. versionchanged:: 0.12 Parameters were added """ self._execute_for_all_tables(app, bind, 'reflect', skip_tables=True) def __repr__(self): app = None if is not None: app = else: ctx = if ctx is not None: app = return '<%s engine=%r>' % ( self.__class__.__name__, app and app.config['SQLALCHEMY_DATABASE_URI'] or None )